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Forests of Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam is a country located on the north coast of the Borneo Island in Southeast Asia, sharing the island with Malaysia and Indonesia. Its 5,270㎢ of land is covered by 3,764㎢ of forests, consisting of 71 percent of the whole nation. Brunei’s climate is of tropical and equatorial characteristics with high temperature, humidity, and rainfall throughout the year.
Brunei’s forests are very well preserved with several types of forests existing together. Largely, forests are divided into two types: Swamp forests, and Hill forests. Swamp forests are forests that are located near of in water, whereas hill forests are located in land areas and mountains. Mangroves, freshwater swamps, and peat swamp forests are forests categorized by the government as swamp forests. These forests constitute about 27 percent of the total forests in Brunei. Tropical heath forests, mixed dipterocarp forest, and montane forests are forests categorized by the government as Hill forests, representing 73 percent of the country’s forests. Mixed dipterocarp forests, the most dominant forest type in all of Brunei’s forests, shows a characteristic of complex ecosystem and floristic richness.


Borneo is one of the world’s top biodiversity hotspots and one of the top regions of high plant diversity. Brunei is located within the ‘Riau Pocket,’ a designated bio-geographic province with active plant speciation. Brunei is home to 100 non-flying mammal species, 300 resident birds among 390 recorded species spotted in Borneo, and 2 species of crocodiles. There are currently 65 endemic species only known to be found in Brunei Darussalam.


Deforestation in Brunei Darussalam from 1984 to 2005 accurred at a rate of 5 percent according to the Forestry Department of Brunei. Brunei Darussalam undergoes various conservation efforts to protect its beautiful ecosystem. Many of the endemic species of Brunei are located in protected forests. The Forestry Department of Brunei Darussalam, based on Brunei’s “National master Plan,” allocates 8 types of land uses: Agricultural, Uncommitted State Land, Resettlement Areas, Urban & Residential, Other Conservation, Gazetted Forest Reserve, Proposed Forest Reserves, and Gravel & White Sand Deposits. The Department also divides forests according to their functions: Production Forest, Conservation Forest, national Park, Protection Forest, and Recreation Forest.